Mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain function that may be caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interaction of genetics with individual experience. In other words, mental illnesses should be based brain imbalances caused by hereditary influences on its development, according to biological and environmental contexts.
Over one third of the total population of the world suffers from common mental disorders.
Triggers are often explained by diathesis-stress model (stress occurs over a vulnerability or genetic predisposition) biopsychosocial model (which focuses on the correlation between the mind, body and influenced by social factors).
Mental illness diagnosis is made by a specialist psychiatrist or psychologist, using different methods, for this purpose, important are the patient’s medical history, observation and questionnaires.
Drug treatments will be recommended only at psychiatrists, and psychotherapy sessions will be held both by psychiatrists and psychologists.Psychotherapy and medication are the main treatment options that involve social intervention (requires interpersonal relationships between specialist and patient), support and personal contribution. Depending on the severity, may require hospitalization or direct medical supervision and treatment of patients involuntarily, if the law allows.
5 Most Common Mental Disorders
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
One of the most common mental disorders is Generalized Anxiety Disorder. It is a condition characterized by excessive anxiety, worry and panic. Symptoms occur over a longer time, at least six months, and can be caused by a number of events or activities. The person can not control their emotions and concerns.
Anxiety disorders include features of other disorders: panic disorder (panic attacks), discomfort, fear and embarrassment of a person who is present in public or when interacting with others (social phobia), fear or excessive care not to ill (obsessive compulsive disorder), fear of being separated from loved ones (separation anxiety), fear of weight gain (anorexia nervosa), laments the manifestation of various symptoms of physical illness triggered by psychological mechanisms (somatization disorder) or very serious disease (hypochondriasis) and posttraumatic stress disorder.
2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterized by ideas resulting images, impulses or obsessions but the urge to do something to reduce anxiety (usually a series of rituals, repetitive behaviors). Although people who have this disorder realize that their actions are not logical, they can not stop without help. The cause is unknown. Diagnosis is based on medical history. Treatment consists of psychotherapy and drug therapy in severe cases. This type of disorder occurs equally in both men and women and affects approximately 2% of the population.
3. Attack and panic disorder
Panic attack is another common mental disorder,characterized by a sudden manifestation of discomfort, access panic, anxiety and fear accompanied by somatic and cognitive symptoms. Panic disorder include a repeated panic attacks, along with fears of further attacks and behavioral changes that avoid situations that could predispose to further seizures. Diagnosis is clinical. Isolated panic attacks do not require treatment, and panic disorders are treated with drug therapy, psychotherapy (best results it is cognitive behavioral therapy, exposure therapy), or both combined.
4. Phobic disorders (phobias)
Phobic disorders are characterized by intense fear, persistent and unfounded triggered by various situations, circumstances, objects, etc.. They cause anxiety and desire for isolation. Are classified as general (agoraphobia, social phobia) or specific. The causes are unknown. Sets a diagnosis by history and medical history of the patient. Treatment for agoraphobia and social phobia, for example, consists of psychotherapy (exposure therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy) and drug therapy.
5. Stress disorder
Acute stress disorder – involves remembering, repeatedly, some things or traumatic situations, overwhelming. This diagnostic will if symptoms will persist longer than 4 weeks.
PTSD – involves recurrent, intrusive memories of a traumatic event, terrifying, painful. Disease pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Symptoms include avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, nightmares and other reactions characteristic body stress (lack of sleep, anxiety, overactive expression of feelings, difficulty concentrating, tendency to isolation). Diagnosis is established based on the medical history of the person. Treatment is exposure therapy and medication.
- Mental Illness: FACTS AND NUMBERS - nami.org
- The facts and figures around Mental Health in the UK are alarming - mentalhealth.org.uk