Sociology of Deviant Behavior. The Antisocial Behavior
“Behavior” Meaning in Psychology
As the subject of psychology – behavior represents the global reaction (glandular, motor, verbal or emotional) – of a person in a certain situation.
Through this reaction, human body responds to a situation according to environmental stimulation and its internal tensions.
The specific system of reference for human behavior is the situation or social context where each person responds through acts, movements and visible, observable gestures in correlation with both situational particularities and characteristics of own personality.
Since the development of procedures and techniques of registration of bodies’ reactions were discovered and pursued not only the outward reactions but also internal changes related to the processes of thought, emotion and language. Thus, they distinguished two ways of behavioral response (Wayne, 1974).
a) Apparent behavior that includes external reactions that are direct observable such as spoken language or gestures, mimics, activity of movement of limbs or body;
b) Unapparent behavior that includes internal changes, indirectly detectable, accompanying processes of thought, emotion, language, changes in respiratory rate, heart rate, salivary secretion, increased sweat gland activity, chemical and hormonal composition of blood and increasing electrical conductance of skin.
“Deviance” and “Deviant Behavior” Definition
Forensic psychology is primarily interested in what means deviance in behavior. Deviance represents a deviation from one group’s rules. Deviant behavior – means deviations in negative form, like everything that is called antisocial behavior, criminality or crime.
Deviant behavior can be understood in two ways:
- Either as a product of functional disability of person due to physiological or psychological deviations;
- - or as a result of a perfectly normal behavior, but incompatible with normal standards of a group.
Scientific observations suggest a differential interpretation of deviation from social norms:
- Deviant behavior – refers to deviations from social norms;
- Aberrant behavior – refers to medico-legal psychiatric or psychopathological aspects.
Most of times when we need to “translate” the meanings of a crime, motivation becomes logical through repeated calls to normality – pathological.
The dilemma is focused around the question:
What is normal and pathological as a crime?
In these cases an offender is subject for a forensic expertise, activity that considers mental state of a deviant personality by specifying the diagnosis and exclusion of the stimulation determines the essential features of personality and places the evolutionary stage of the individual with behavioral disorders. In case that highlight of features of offender present forms of social risk or criminal potency is required the establishment of medical, educational or socio-legal methods, all to set up social protection and self redress.
- Antisocial behavior or criminal when it refers to judicial aspects, deviations and violations of judicial criminal norms are defined as individual and social features that deviate from society norms and require observance from all members.
The degree of risk of antisocial behavior depends largely on coercive or permissive character of social norms.
Our criminal system uses the term of crime, but not of offense. In the Criminal Code, the offense is defined as an act which presents a danger, guilt and is committed by the criminal law.
From the psychological point of view, crime is a manifestation of deviant behavior – that is encoded by the society, with antisocial content for which are taken certain attitudes such as criminal sanctions.