What triggers an expressive speech disorder. What are the symptoms, how to diagnose and how to treat this mental disorder.
It is a pronounced disturbance of speech development, which cannot be explained by mental retardation, inadequate training and is not associated with a common developmental disorder, hearing impairment or neurological disorder. This is a specific developmental disorder in which a child’s ability to use expressive spoken language is much lower than the level corresponding to mental age. Understanding speech is in the normal range.
The frequency of disorders of expressive speech ranges from 3 to 10% of school-age children. At 2-3 times is more common in boys than in girls. More common is among children, in the family history of which there are articulation disorders or other developmental disorders.
What triggers an expressive speech disorder
The reason for the development of expressive speech disorder is unknown. Minimal brain dysfunction or delay of the formation of functional neural systems is put forward as possible causes. The presence of family history points to a genetic determinism of this disorder. Neuropsychological disturbances mechanism may be related to the kinetic component, with interest in the premotor parts of the brain or structures in the back of the lobe, with the nominative function aborted or undeveloped speech, spatial representation of speech (the temporo-parietal area departments and the parieto-temporo-occipital chiasm), subject to the normal left-hemispheric localization speech centers, and it malfunctions in the left hemisphere.
Symptoms of disorders of expressive speech:
Severe forms of disorder usually appear before 3 years. Lack of individual word-formation – to 2, and simple sentences and phrases to 3 years – a sign of the delay. More recent violations – limited verbal development, use a small set of pattern words, the difficulty in finding synonyms and abbreviated pronunciation, immature sentence structure, syntax errors, omissions, word endings, prefixes, improper use of prepositions, pronouns, conjugations, declensions of verbs, nouns, lack of fluency in presentation, lack of consistency in presentation and in retelling. Speech recognition is not difficult. It is characterized by adequate use of non-verbal cues, gestures and desire to communicate. Articulation is usually immature. May be compensatory emotional reactions in relationships with peers, behavioral disorders, inattention. Pervasive developmental disorder co-ordination and functional enuresis are often associated disorders.
Diagnosis of disorders of expressive speech
-Indicators of expressive speech is significantly lower than those obtained by non-verbal intellectual abilities (nonverbal portion of the Wechsler test).
-Disorder significantly preventing success in school and in everyday life, requiring the expression in verbal form.
-It is not associated with general developmental disorders, hearing problems or neurological disorder.
Should be made with mental retardation, it is characterized by a complete violation of the intellect in the field of verbal and nonverbal, with general developmental disorders, in which the absence of the internal language of symbolic or imaginative play, inadequate use of gestures, and inability to maintain cordial social relations.
In acquired aphasia or dysphasia is characterized by normal language development to injury or other neurological disorders.
Treatment of disorders of expressive speech
Preferable is voice and family therapy. Speech therapy involves the acquisition of phonemes, vocabulary, sentence structure. If there are signs of secondary or comorbid disorders in behavior or emotions it is shown medication and psychotherapy.