What is “The Big Five” in Psychology ?
The Five Factor Model of Personality is viewed as consisting of stable internal factors contributing to individual differences. In this theoretical amount worked Allport, Eysenck, Kettell, R. Norman, L. Goldberg.
Creation of the Five Factor Model of Personality, as well as the work done by these authors, was based on the lexical approach: the selection criteria for describing a person from analysis of the nature of language and the subsequent scientific taxonomy. A typical procedure for the study in this model is as follows. Prepared experts in the dictionary distinguish adjectives that describe individual differences in behavior. Then are selected by the concept of relevance, use, naturalness and are classified into categories of personality’s qualities or personality types. The structure of the features is subjected to scrutiny. For the final taxonomic. structure is carried out a factor and cluster analysis of survey data, constructed as a procedure for assessment and self-esteem.
As a result of the work, there have been identified five factors discovered in the stability of the different samples, including those in different socio-cultural conditions. The proposed research-based on the structure of the personality by P. Costa and R. Mac-Edge in 1961, was called Big Five. It consists of the following measurements (in parentheses are the adjectives that have received the highest load factors):
- Extraversion / Introversion (outgoing, assertive, energetic, active).
- Agreeableness / Antagonism (good-natured, collaborating, trusting).
- Conscientiousness / Undirectedness (honest, responsible, disciplined).
- Neuroticism / Emotional Stability (calm, not neurotic, not depressed).
- Openness to experience / Not open to experience (intellectual, brilliant, independent-minded).
Based on the Five Factor Model of Personality it was developed the personality types questionnaire NEO PI-R. Currently, the most debated issues is the reproducibility of the measurements, to determine the causes of their universality, the number of factors and their contents, the need for media level types. The problem is that the resulting factors may not reflect the structure of the personality, but be a result of the method. This is indicated by the similarity of semantic factors in the measurements of the differential.
As critical observations, it should be noted that in theory it is not paid enough attention to the problem of development. On the content the Five Factor Model of Personality is the structure of individual differences, rather than the structure of personality, which allows us to understand and predict the dynamics of development, the causes of violations, etc. The object of study is the observed behavior, rather than its causes and factors. Outside of attention were the motivational system, emotions, the structure of intelligence, personality traits, personality types.