What Are Mental And Behavioral Disorders Due To Use Of Opioids
Published on Monday, September 19th, 2011 at 1:33 pm and is filed under Mental Disorders
What Causes Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of opioids. What are the symptoms, how to diagnosi and how to treat these mental disorders.
Opioids – most extended drugs after cannabinoids. For patients of this group is characterized by antisocial behavior and antisocial traits in premorbide.
What Causes Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of opioids:
The group includes the opioid drug addiction of opium, which include morphine, codeine, a natural foods poppy and opiate compounds: methadone, heroin, fentanyl. There are three types of opioid receptors: mu, kappa and delta. Binding of morphine is associated with mu-receptors in the dorsoventral nucleus, the thalamus and the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Mu-receptor is involved in the development of euphoria, miosis and respiratory depression. Other opiate receptors bind enkephalins and other opiate synthetic compounds. Perhaps, exposure to drugs is associated with genetically determined levels of receptors. Marker for the level of receptors is affective instability, and perhaps the desire to asocial.
Symptoms of mental and behavioral disorders due to use of opioids:
It is characterized by analgesia and euphoria, and the pupils constricted (pinpoint, a pinhead), suppression of the cough reflex, respiratory depression and motility, decreased libido, bradycardia and hypotension.
-The use with harmful consequences and dependence syndrome
It is formed dependency syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, myelopathy, reduced tactile sensitivity, unstable mood swings. The increase in respiratory diseases, nausea and vomiting, nephropathy and violation are very stable monthly withdrawal symptoms. Personality changes with a tendency to asocial, egocentric desire for drugs.
Anxiety and fear of withdrawal, craving the drug. Sweating, nasal congestion and runny nose, constant yawning, lacrimation, dilated pupils, stomach cramps, tremors, and muscle pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, headache, increased blood pressure and tachycardia. With prolonged (several months) of abstinence – and hypotension, insomnia, bradycardia, and passivity, loss of appetite, craving.
In the period of abstinence may develop paranoid ideas of persecution with the disorder and schizophrenia-like psychosis, as well as deep depression.
Amnestic disorders occur in the form of episodes of retro-anterograde amnesia.
-The residual state and a psychotic disorder with a lag debut
With prolonged abstinence for more than 6 months it is marked hypotension and insomnia, bradycardia, and passivity, loss of appetite, craving. In this period can be repeated episodes of paranoid disorder.
Diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to use of opioids:
It is based on the detection of opiods in plasma and urine, personal history, a typical pattern of opioid intoxication, as well as reactions to the introduction of a test dose of naloxone, which is under / in a dose of 0.2-0.4 mg alters (usually suppresses) the withdrawal syndrome clinic .
It is differentiated from other forms of mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use.
Treatment of mental and behavioral disorders due to use of opioids:
Therapy of acute opiate overdose includes the use of naloxone (0.01 mg per kg body weight) or antakson. There are used techniques of detoxification with hemosorption, dialysis, administration of I / novocaine and benzodiazepines. For specific therapy it is included methadone maintenance as a primary therapy for detoxification and rehabilitation as during maintenance therapy, treatment with clonidine in detoxification, as well as naloxone and naltrexone therapy and buprenorphine as partial agnostom opiates. There is also the experience of removal from the toxic dose of oxytocin to 2.0 / m per day. Also is required a long and persistent group and individual therapy and rehabilitation in specialized centers.