What Causes Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of volatile solvents. What are the symptoms, how to diagnose and what kind of treatments are available for these disorders.
One in ten students up to grade 11 have tried or regularly used the volatile solvents.
What Causes Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of volatile solvents:
Volatile liquids and gases, inhalation of which causes euphoria: adhesives, aerosols, solvents, gasoline, heated, dry cleaners, gas anesthetics (nitrous oxide), volatile nitrates. The effect depends on the active substance: aliphatic hydrocarbon, ester, ketone, a mixed compound
Symptoms of mental and behavioral disorders due to use of volatile solvents:
- Acute intoxication
Euphoria, disinhibition, disorientation, dizziness, fainting, headache, inappropriate behavior, and convulsions.
- The use with harmful consequences
Somatic changes in the form of arrhythmia, hypotension, bradycardia, watery eyes, dilated blood vessels of the sclera and conjunctiva, blurred vision and diplopia, burns, dehydration, also dementia with cognitive dysfunction, ataxia and dysarthria, paresthesias, encephalopathy with diffuse atrophy.
Clinical example: M. Boy, 8 years old. Parents noticed that he’s always late, and in recent days did not come to school. They followed him, they noticed that he was standing at the crossroads for a long time and breathes the fumes, the neighbor’s unscrewed gas tank valve the motorcycle and poured it into the bottle, the park was breathing gasoline. He experienced dizziness and euphoria. Aversive therapy included a method in which the smell of gasoline reflexively associates with the smell of ammonia.
- Dependence syndrome
The phenomena of psychic and physical dependence.
- Withdrawal syndrome
Irritability, conflict, drowsiness or insomnia.
- Psychotic disorder
Schizophreniform psychosis with auditory and true pseudohallucinations, paranoid state with ideas of reference, persecution.
- Amnestic syndrome
Impaired concentration, amnesia fixation.
A residual state and a psychotic disorder with a lag debut
Encephalopathy and delayed schizophreniform psychotic states.
Diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to use of volatile solvents:
Clinical history, bad breath, runny nose, ringing in the ears, dermatitis, changes in the liver clinic and toxic substances.
Differentiate with psychotic disorders in organic diseases of the brain, other mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use.
Treatment of mental and behavioral disorders due to use of volatile solvents:
Symptomatic therapy and detoxification, psychotherapy and behavioral therapy.