Orgasm and Anorgasmia – Psychology and Concepts
Published on Thursday, December 15th, 2011 at 6:14 pm and is filed under Sex and Relationships
Between 1954 and 1966, Masters and Johnson have studied – psychologically – sexual responses of nearly 700 subjects (women). The two American researchers have established four phases of sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution (back) and have developed “women’s sexual response cycle”. They also discovered that women can have orgasm during sex, several times, while man has only one orgasm. There is a big difference between male orgasms and female orgasms.
Masters and Johnson have shown in detail all the sexual reactions and different phases of them, focusing on vascongetiv reactions, controlled by autonomic nervous system and on spasm reactions during the involuntary orgasm of vagina or the type of pelvic muscles (pelvis). They found that these spasmodic reactions take 0.85 seconds and have defined “orgasmic platform” (as the lower third of the vagina). Masters and Johnson didn’t notice any specific reaction of clitoris during orgasm.
According to their function is to arouse the clitoris and increase sexual tension (the role of receptor and transforming sexual tension). The clitoris is sensitive to stimulation and an excess of stimulation or stimulation of clitoris can be unpleasant or even painful for some women.
The speed of response depends on the nature of clitoral stimulation – direct or indirect. Clitoral stimulation during coitus occurs in every coital position – indirectly, through traction or by direct pressure.
For Masters and Johnson there would be only an orgasm (one way/type of orgasm) which is obtained from an effective sexual stimulation, whatever it may be, clitoral or vaginal, that vagina and clitoris react according to psychological types.
Masters and Johnson showed in “preparing” orgasm, significant changes in the vaginal canal (increase in muscle volume – like a tent that opens like a parachute – activity of secretion – lubrication due to venous plexus surrounding vagina). Receptors are sensitive due to muscles, pressure, relaxation and touch. It is not about sensitivity of clitoris. Masters and Johnson described in detail orgasmic platform, as a place of orgasmic contractions – cushions muscles, lower level of vagina.
Kaplan resumed and continued research conducted by Masters and Johnson, the idea that reaches the orgasm as a reflex. According to him, there is a sensory element, the clitoris and a motor element, vagina (nothing that the clitoris doesn’t interfere with download orgasm).
Barbach and Picolo took these “mechanistic” theories. According to them, the idea is that woman should “learn to feel”, learning masturbate clitoris. Female orgasm – according to them – during coitus occurs exclusively through clitoral arousal.
Alzate considered the notion of internal pressure in the vaginal canal. He pointed out that women were stimulated through balloons (with variable pressure) placed in vagina reached the orgasm than those who were stimulated by movement back and forth. Alzate showed that 89% of women reach orgasm if they are stimulated by pressure applied vaginally.
In late 1979, Grafenberg described the G-spot as being located in the front of the vagina. In 1983 he presented its particular structure, which gives a great sensitivity. Other researchers, however, don’t talk about a “point”, but about an area that is placed in front of vagina.
The first who spoke about female ejaculation (or about “a kind of” ejaculation) is Tordjman. Some researchers believe that it is the fluid secreted by glands of Skene, others say it’s about emissions of urine. Further investigation showed that the substance “ejaculated” doesn’t have the urine composition, but it could be a mixture of urine with liquid lubricant. Desjardin is one of those who rely on this version. He believes that it would be premature, but believes that if it were an “orgasm extradition” due to an inversion of the perineum order, associated with perineum weakness, which causes and emission of urine.
Desjardin talks about different types of orgasm. As Masters and Johnson, Desjardin is based on the principle that sexual function is muscular system and voluntarily muscle system. He affirmed that vascongestive functions (autonomic nervous system) can be modified by “position” (voluntary muscle system). He introduces several concepts that allow refinement of the concept of orgasm.
Among other things, he talks about orgasm as starting vaginal point, making dissociation between vaginal and clitoral orgasm. Alzate resumed his research, according to deep sensitivity and vaginal pressure (vagina becomes smooth – although usually is ribbed – as effect of pressure on internal walls “tent effect”). He determined that the uterus itself has no influence on the excitation, but its movements would have one. Moreover, the cervix has many nerve endings. It also outlines a specific vocabulary, taking into account the psychological and emotional reactions of women. He introduced the dichotomy of orgasm/orgast. He described three types of orgasm: extradition orgasm, shrink orgasm, post-ejaculatory orgasm.